Ferritic SS 410

Ferritic SS 410

Like its predecessor, grade 410 also has body centred cubic (bcc) grain structure and alpha iron in its composition, which gives it its commendable magnetic properties. The grade is ferromagnetic and remains magnetic at all conditions. Grade 410 is general purpose alloy with 12% chromium content and appropriate corrosion resistant properties and can be suitably heat treated for desired mechanical properties. The properties can be enhanced by a series of processes such as hardening, tempering and polishing.

The alloy is used at slightly corrosive atmospheres, where localized rust is acceptable. It is less resistant to corrosion compared to the grades in austenitic alloys and will be required a final heat treatment after the processes, to be used in applications.

The type 410S is a non-hardening modification of the type 410 with low carbon content. A small addition to alloy, like titanium blended with its low carbon content, minimizes the austenite phase formation at high temperatures, restricting the alloy’s ability to harden. The alloy becomes better in weldability. The carbon content remains 0.08% max, preventing the alloy to become brittle.

The non-hardening ability of the alloy, restricts the formation of cracks in the grain structure, when welded or taken to high temperatures. The alloy remains soft and ductile even if rapidly cooled down to critical temperature, whereas the same cannot be said when it is faced with sub-zero temperatures. The Ferritic grade 410 can have a satisfactory exposure to chlorides in everyday activities, if proper cleaning is performed. After machining processes, hot working and annealing might be performed, which would result in heat tint and oxide formation.

For maximum resistance in the applications for chemical environments, all the surfaces of the alloy must be ground, polished, immersed in warm solution of dilute nitric acid and then rinsed with water. The alloy has a corrosion rate of 0.002 mm/a (Millimetres per year) in the presence of 5% acetic acid and phosphorous acid solution at 49°C, hence it has a good corrosion resistance to mild organic and mineral acids.

  • Chemical properties
  • Physical properties
  • General data
  • Standards Specifications
  • Forms of Supply
  • Corrosion Resistance
  • Heat Treatment
  • Weldability
  • Machining
  • Applications
  • Possible grade alternatives
Grade   C Ni Mn Si Cr S Fe P
SS 410 Min.  0.08  0.75 - - 11.5 - - -
Max. 0.15 0.75 1.00 1.00 13.5 0.03 Bal. 0.040
Density 0.280 Ibs/in3
7.75 g/cm3
Melting Point 2560 – 2625°F/1404 – 1440°C
Thermal Conductivity @ 70°F 10.6 BTU-in/ft2 – hr-°F
18.3 W/m-°C
Specific Heat 0.11 BTU/lb-°F @ 70°F
460 J/kg-°C @ 20°C
Electrical Resistivity 29.5 Microhm-in at 75°F
75 Microhm-cm at 24°C
Modulus of Elasticity 28.5 x 106 psi
196 GPa
Annealing 1500 – 1650°F (816 – 899°C),
Standard SS 410
UNS S41000
EN 1.4006
BS 410S21
OR -
Pipes & Tubes
Summary Standards
Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service ASTM A182
Fittings & Flanges
Summary Standards
Standard Specification For Seamless Stainless Steel Mechanical Tubing ASTM A511
Standard Specification for Seamless and Welded Ferritic and Martensitic Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service ASTM A268

Seamless Tubes

The grade 410 can be used in environments containing diluted acetic acid, naptha, nitric acid and sulfuric acid. It can be used suitably in oil and gas applications. The grade 410 is resistant to hot gases, steam, food, mild acids and alkalies, fresh water and dry air. The resistance can be improved by hardening and smooth polishing the surface.

The alloy is annealed to a temperature of 816 – 819°C and then air cooled to about 593°C, basically done after cold working on the alloy, to remove the stresses. If the grains in the microstructure are found to be too large, then the annealing range needs to be reduced about 649 - 732°C. Tempering can be performed for 1 – 4 hrs at 593 – 750°C, and then air cooled.

Conventional welding techniques can be used i.e., common fusion and electric resistance welding techniques. Grade 410S has better welding properties than Grade 410. The materials are often pre-heated before welding and post-weld annealing is required to mitigate cracking. Brittle weld fractures need to be avoided during fabrication by eschewing discontinuities and at the same time, maintaining low weld heat. Filler metals are normally used on grade 309, electrodes and rods. Post machining decontamination and passivation of the surface might be recommended.

Cold forming can be appropriately done in the annealed condition. Hot forming is done in between the range of 800 - 1100°C. Machining is best done in the annealed condition at the surface with the speed of 19 – 22 m/min. It becomes difficult to machine the grade if it is hardened above 30HRC. Drawing, spinning, bending and roll forming can be easily done.

Bolts, screws, bushings, nuts, shafts, valves, pumps, mine ladder rungs, petroleum refining and petrochemical equipment, cutlery, ore processing, press plates, sugar processing.

Grade 416
Grade   C Mn Si P S Cr Ni
SS 416 Min. - - - - 0.15 12 -
Max. 0.15 1.25 1.0 0.06 - 14 0.6
Grade 420
Grade   C Mn Si P S Cr
SS 420 Min. 0.15 - - - - 12
Max. - 1 1 0.040 0.03 14
Grade 440C
Grade   C Mn Si P S Cr Ni N
SS 440C Min. 0.95 - - - - 16 - -
Max. 1.20 1 1 0.01 0.03 18 - -

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